pupil response brain injury

The authors thank Becky Desjardins and Bethany Plain for their helpful textual comments on the current version of the article. While trauma nurses are likely familiar with basic components of the pupillary examination, some confusion about more specific aspects of the examination and the physiologic basis of the pupillary response may still remain, particularly as it pertains to patients with TBI. This study revealed that the previously observed main effects of intelligibility level on the SRT and the pupil responses were replicated in the TBI group. The length of each trial varied with the length of the presented sentence, which had a mean duration of 1.9 s (range 1.4–2.5 s). Brain and Spinal Cord injuries tend to be permanent because of the nature of neuron regeneration - which is slow and relatively rare. Ohlenforst et al. Brain Hemorrhages. This will be discussed in the following section. The MPD, PPD, and PPD latency were all larger at the 50% compared with 84% intelligibility level, indicating higher listening effort over a longer period of time at lower intelligibility. 3 Central herniation, usually preceded by uncal and cingulate herniation, is the downward movement of the brain through the tentorial notch. The results indicate that TBI participants have difficulties with listening to speech in noise despite a normal audiogram. This allowed us to compare the scores of the current TBI group comprising 20 participants with those of the NH and HI groups. Interestingly, participants reported a higher quitting rate in the single-talker masker conditions compared with the fluctuating noise conditions. They gather light and bring it to the retina to form images. For all remaining diameter traces, the mean pupil diameter and SD were calculated in the interval from 1 s before sentence onset till the start of the response prompt. Nevertheless, the question of why the pupil dilation response would be smaller for TBI group remains. However, the difference between the single-talker masker and fluctuating noise masker conditions was only statistically significant at 50% intelligibility (p = .002), as reflected by a lower SRT in the single-talker masker condition compared with the fluctuating noise masker condition, and not at 84% intelligibility (p = .336), which explained the interaction and the absence for a main effect of masker type. Analysis of the self-rated effort ratings (see Table 1) revealed a significant main effect of intelligibility, F(1, 19) = 9.89, p = .005, no effect for masker type (F < 1), and no interaction (F < 1). Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. The area between the second and third dotted lines indicates the time window used for calculating the mean pupil dilation. According to FUEL (Pichora-Fuller et al., 2016), fatigue influences our processing capacity by affecting the way we evaluate our performance. Results of a correlation analyses showed that TBI participants with worse speech reception thresholds had a smaller pupil response. The head injury can be described as minimal, minor, moderate, or severe, based on symptoms after the injury. SRT (dB SNR) as a function of PPD both averaged over intelligibility level and masker type. In the TBI group, this effect was only observed in the 50% intelligibility condition. In our previous studies, we found a slightly but significantly better SRT for speech presented with a single-talker masker in the background compared with the condition with fluctuating noise. ,{i:'fig2-2331216518811444',type:'fig',g:[{m:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig2.gif',l:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig2.jpeg',size:'138 KB'}]} Pupils (assess after resuscitation and note evidence of orbital trauma) — reactivity to light (a fixed pupil is <1mm response to bright light) — asymmetry — dilation (‘blown pupil’) Focal neurological deficit; Lateralising weakness; Evidence of: – penetrating head injury — … TBI = traumatic brain injury; PPD = peak pupil dilation. A., Festen, J. M., Kramer, S. E. (, Koelewijn, T., Zekveld, A. Further investigation is requested.  |  To illustrate, while replicating the effects of intelligibility level and masker type on the pupil response, Zekveld, Kramer, and Festen (2011) observed a smaller pupil dilation response for HI compared with NH listeners when listening to speech in noise at intelligibility levels close to 50% correct performance. Previously reported effects of intelligibility on the SRT but not masker type were replicated in listeners with TBI. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that pupil response is sensitive to the level of speech intelligibility (e.g., Kramer, Kapteyn, Festen, & Kuik, 1997; Zekveld, Kramer, & Festen, 2010) and type of background sound (Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, & Kramer, 2012; Wendt, Koelewijn, Książek, Kramer, & Lunner, 2018). This is further discussed in the following section. Phillips SS, Mueller CM, Nogueira RG, Khalifa YM. The SRT task was used in combination with pupillometry, allowing us to investigate the effort individuals exploited in these different listening situations. Trauma nurses caring for these patients routinely perform serial neurologic assessments, including pupillary examinations. Pupil responses per condition averaged over participants. Finally, for the pupil baseline, an effect of intelligibility was observed, F(1, 19) = 9.99, p = .005, with the baseline in the 50% condition being somewhat higher than in 84% intelligibility condition. It is thus possible that the same interaction effect would have appeared in the TBI group if we had included a larger range of intelligibility levels in this study. Select all that apply. No significant main effect of masker type (F < 1) was shown, but there was a significant interaction, F(1, 19) = 8.15, p = .010. window.figureViewer={doi:'10.1177/2331216518811444',path:'/na101/home/literatum/publisher/sage/journals/content/tiab/2018/tiab_22/2331216518811444/20190522',figures:[{i:'fig1-2331216518811444',type:'fig',g:[{m:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig1.gif',l:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig1.jpeg',size:'69 KB'}]} For testing H2c, TRT performance between groups was compared with a one-way ANOVA, which showed no significant difference (F < 1) in mean score between the TBI group (mean = 59.1%, SD = 4.3), NH group (mean = 59.4%, SD = 5.1), and the HI group (mean =59.1%, SD = 4.3). The PTA between the TBI group, PTA (1–4 KHz) =9.1 dB HL, and NH group, PTA (1–4 KHz) = 9.0 dB HL, did not differ significantly (t = .087, p = .931). Cognitive Rehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Reference for Occupational Therapists. Note that no significant correlations between baseline and SRT were observed indicating that it is unlikely that the absolute noise level used in the SRT task was the underlying cause of the effect of intelligibility on the baseline. (2017) who found that individuals with higher levels of fatigue had smaller task-related PPDs than individuals with lower levels of fatigue. Together with the absence of main effect of masker type for the TBI participants on SRT and the pupil dilation response, the results may suggest increased distractibility as a direct consequence of the TBI (Kaipio et al., 2000) or as suggested, related to high levels of fatigue (e.g., Boksem, Meijman, & Lorist, 2005). The onset of the sentences is at 0 s. The baseline is indicated as the average pupil diameter over 1 s preceding the start of the sentence. ■ ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) affect more than 1.4 mil- lion Americans annually. Thus, 16 patients had to be excluded from the study. During the SRT tasks, for each participant and trial, the pupil diameter and pupil x- and y-coordinate traces were recorded at a 50 Hz-sampling rate. NIH Analyses on the PPD latency revealed no effect of intelligibility, F(1, 19) = 3.72, p = .069, no effect of masker type, F(1, 19) = 2.84, p = .108, and no interaction (F < 1). The Pupillary Response in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Guide for Trauma Nurses Journal of Trauma Nursing: October-December 2007 - Volume 14 - Issue 4 - p 197-198 doi: 10.1097/01.JTN.0000318922.28746.f2 Wendt, D., Koelewijn, T., Książek, P., Kramer, S. E., Lunner, T. (, Zekveld, A. These characteristics make the TBI group a unique group of listeners. They examined the entire range from 0% to 100% sentence recognition performance and found that at higher levels of performance (≥60%), pupil dilation was larger for HI than for NH listeners. The significantly higher (poorer) SRTs for the TBI group compared with the NH group in the absence of a difference in PTA confirms H2a. ,{i:'fig3-2331216518811444',type:'fig',g:[{m:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig3.gif',l:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig3.jpeg',size:'232 KB'}]} It's possible to have a concussion and not r… After a stroke, concussion, or brain injury, the eyes provide clues about a patient’s brain health. PPD latency is an indicator of the time needed for cognitive processing (e.g., Hyönä, Tommola, & Alaja, 1995), and the baseline pupil size prior to the pupil response is considered to be an index of arousal or cognitive resources exerted in preparation for the task (e.g., Aston-Jones & Cohen, 2005). For each condition, the target speech level was fixed at 55 dB SPL. period of time without circulation or oxygenation to the brain; coma; no or abnormal motor response; myoclonus ; PROGNOSIS. We hypothesized (H2a) that the participants with TBI would have an increased SRT, indicating worse speech processing in noise, compared with what has been previously shown for NH participants without any reported neurological problems (Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, Rönnberg, et al., 2012). We used the same setup as in our previous studies because our primary goal was to examine whether we would be able to replicate the effects of intelligibility level and masker type on both the SRT and pupil parameters in this unique group of participants with TBI. Some medications, recreational drugs, and injuries can cause this. A., Festen, J. M., Rönnberg, J., Kramer, S. E. (, Kramer, S. E., Kapteyn, T., Festen, J., Kuik, D. (, Kramer, S. E., Teunissen, C. E., Zekveld, A. If either pupil has an abnormal reaction to light, that is a very disturbing sign after head trauma and plays a part in predicting coma emergence. None of these correlations were significant (single talker 50%, r = − .165, p = .487; fluctuating 50%, r = −.050, p = .835; single talker 84%, r = .160, p = .500; and fluctuating 84%, r = −0.202, p = .393). Self-rated effort scores between groups were compared with a one-way ANOVA. However, what if the pupils are fixed and dilated? This site uses cookies. Because of apoptosis (programmed cell death), the brain and spinal cord cells undergo mitosis at an extremely slow rate. The nurse is assigned to care for a child with a brain injury who has a temporal lobe herniation and increasing intracranial pressure. 1993 May;202(5):404-7. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1045614. All had normal or corrected-to-normal vision and were screened for near-vision acuity (Bailey & Lovie, 1980). Wang et al., 2017), saving the listener from exploiting too much effort in difficult listening situations, hence the smaller pupil dilation compared with that of less fatigued NH listeners. [Pupillary disorders - diagnosis, diseases, consequences]. Learn what causes them and how to recognize the signs. ,{i:'fig4-2331216518811444',type:'fig',g:[{m:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig4.gif',l:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig4.jpeg',size:'94 KB'}]} Although the pupil dilation responses on average did not differ between groups, self-rated effort scores were highest in the TBI group. This was rated from 0 (this happened for none of the sentences) to 10 (this happened for all of the sentences). (13). Pupil reaction. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. ,{i:'fig4-2331216518811444',type:'fig',g:[{m:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig4.gif',l:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig4.jpeg',size:'94 KB'}]} Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that affects your brain function. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to identify the key components of a pupillary examination and its associated physiologic response. This confirms H2a indicating that the TBI participants had worse speech processing in noise than the NH group, despite the absence of a difference in PTA. Therefore, the idea that TBI would have a limiting effect on the deployment of cognitive resources, resulting in a smaller PPD (H2b), was not confirmed. Computed tomography showed no new lesion. Remarkably, other studies reported a larger pupil response in HI listeners compared with NH listeners. The TBI group had the same pure-tone audiogram and text reception threshold scores as the NH listeners, yet their speech reception thresholds were significantly worse. The oculovestibular test is contraindicated in patients with ruptured tympanic membranes or otorrhea; results may be false-positive in patients who are on ototoxic drugs (including phenytoin) or who have Ménière’s disease. Analysis on the MPDs (see Table 1 and Figure 2) revealed a significant main effect of intelligibility, F(1, 19) = 19.25, p = .000, as reflected by larger MPDs at 50% compared with the 84% intelligibility. No significant difference was found (t = −1.349, p = .185). Pupil Responses of Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury During Processing of Speech in Noise Thomas Koelewijn1, Jose´ A. P. van Haastrecht1, and Sophia E. Kramer1 Abstract Previous research has shown the effects of task demands on pupil responses in both normal hearing (NH) and hearing impaired (HI) adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to identify the key components of a pupillary examination and its associated physiologic response. Traces containing an amplitude difference larger than 2 SDs were excluded (on average 15.9 % of the traces). People know it as a black circle in the middle of the eye which responds to light. A case study is provided to illustrate the application of this information among patients with TBI. If their pupils do not respond to bright light, that is a sign that their injury damaged their brain stem, which again can reduce chances of a good recovery. After deblinking on both the x- and y-coordinate traces, a spike detection algorithm was used to detect eye movements. As in previous studies (Koelewijn et al., 2014; Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, Rönnberg, et al., 2012), participants performed a TRT task (Zekveld et al., 2007). In summary, the objective of this study was twofold. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. Pupillary response to bright light evaluates cranial nerves II and III and should be absent in both eyes. The NH and HI groups used in our previous studies each included 32 participants. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Sensors (Basel). All participants were recruited via a Dutch TBI information website (hersenletsel-uitleg.nl) and at meeting points (brain injury-cafés) where Dutch people with traumatic or non-TBI gather. (, Versfeld, N., Daalder, L., Festen, J., Houtgast, T. (. First, the TRT scores are known to be correlated with effects of interfering speech on both the speech reception threshold (SRT) and the pupil dilation response (e.g., Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, Rönnberg, & Kramer, 2012). window.figureViewer={doi:'10.1177/2331216518811444',path:'/na101/home/literatum/publisher/sage/journals/content/tiab/2018/tiab_22/2331216518811444/20190522',figures:[{i:'fig1-2331216518811444',type:'fig',g:[{m:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig1.gif',l:'10.1177_2331216518811444-fig1.jpeg',size:'69 KB'}]} The aim of this study was to examine their pupil dilation responses evoked by an SRT task (Plomp & Mimpen, 1979) and compare their responses with those of NH and HI listeners. During this task, sentences were visually presented on a computer screen in a red font (lower case Arial, vertical visual angle of 0.48°) on a white background partially masked by black vertical bars. High levels of fatigue could result in the preservation of resources by allocating less effort. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. The GCS score, together with information about pupil reaction, conveys to the physician most of the clinical predictive information in head-injured patients. Often, fixed pupils are also dilated pupils. The lens that is the human eye, should respond instantly to a change in light conditions. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! They may stay enlarged even in bright environments. Login failed. In addition, future research should include independent and objective measures for distractibility and fatigue. Sharing links are not available for this article. The value of the SRT (dB signal-to-noise ratio [SNR]) was estimated for speech presented at 50% and at 84% intelligibility (sentences entirely correct) using a 1-up-1-down (Plomp & Mimpen, 1979) and a 4-up-1-down staircase procedure (Levitt, 1971), respectively. Swinging flashlight test This compares the direct and consensual pupillary constriction of each eye to look for a difference in the afferent conduction between them, called a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD). Prior to the experiment, participants were familiarized to the task at an intermediate sentence intelligibility level of 71% (2-up-1-down procedure) by listening and responding to 13 practice sentences for both masker types. Does a brain injury on the left side cause pupil changes in the right eye? As such, the high levels of fatigue could have served as a protective mechanism (cf. Finally, the current results showed an effect of intelligibility on the pupil baseline in the TBI group. Effects are usually temporary but can include headaches and problems with concentration, memory, balance and coordination.Concussions are usually caused by a blow to the head. This algorithm uses a 100 ms time window that slides with 20 ms steps in which maximum amplitude differences are calculated between all the time points within the window for each step. This was rated from 0 (none of the sentences were intelligible) to 10 (all sentences were intelligible). ]}. Head injury with fixed dilated pupils: Are we done? 3. Patients with severe brain injury and coma who recover may, depending on the severity of the brain injury, progress through several levels of consciousness, from coma, to vegetative state, to minimally conscious state, to consciousness, with varying degrees of motor, cognitive, and affective impairment. This is an issue that needs to be addressed in future studies. Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) affect more than 1.4 million Americans annually. Which signs should the nurse identify as indicative of this type of injury? The onset of the masker was 3 s prior to the onset of the target sentence and continued for 3 s after the offset of the target sentence. Pupillometry in critical care. An example is a study by Ayasse, Lash, and Wingfield (2017) who used sentences that were audible to all participants. The same finding was observed by Kuchinsky et al. The results of this study within the group of adults with TBI revealed significantly lower SNRs at 50% compared with 84% intelligibility and a significantly lower SNR for the single-talker masker compared with fluctuating noise at 50% intelligibility. This was verified by having the TBI participants performing a TRT task. (2017). Second, TRT scores correlate with working memory capacity measures (e.g., Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, Rönnberg, et al., 2012). Within these averaged traces, the MPD, PPD relative to baseline, and PPD latency were calculated. A main effect of masker type on SRT as previously shown for NH participants was not observed in the TBI group. These findings together indicate that changes in the pupil dilation response evoked during speech recognition in noise not only depend on task-related factors, but the magnitude of the pupil response seems to also vary across different listener groups. A Systematic Review Assessing the Current State of Automated Pupillometry in the NeuroICU. Sympathetic storming after severe traumatic brain injury. These findings indicate that previously reported intelligibility and masker type effects were shown for performance, but contrary to our expectations (H1), a main effect of masker type on the PPD was not replicated in listeners with TBI. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. It is actually a virtual space, a void. Traces containing more than 15% blinks were excluded from further analysis (on average over participants 4.0% of the traces). Response inhibition after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children: impairment and recovery. However, manual pupil measurements (performed using a penlight or ophthalmoscope) have been shown to be subjective, inaccurate, and not repeatable or consistent. Lower scores indicate better performance. According to the framework for understanding effortful listening (FUEL; Pichora-Fuller et al., 2016), listening effort depends on more than just task demands. For testing H2c, we used one-way ANOVA to compare the current TRT scores to those of NH and HI participants. The second goal was to compare the results of the TBI participants with those of NH and HI listeners. The range of potential outcomes is wide. Remarkably, the current result for the TBI group showed a negative correlation between SRT and PPD, showing participants with a worse SRTs to have overall smaller PPDs. The whole procedure, including measurement of pure-tone hearing thresholds, near vision acuity, fitting the eye-tracker, practicing and performing the SRT tasks, practicing and performing the TRT task, and a 15-min break halfway through plus additional breaks requested by participants took 2 to 3 h. Note that seven participants requested an additional break, one participant requested a longer break halfway through without an additional break, and one participant took a nap during the break halfway through without requesting an additional break. We have looked at the pupillary response before on this blog in terms of the Doll’s Eye Reflex in brainstem death and the oculocephalic reflex. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. The Pupil Dilation Response to Auditory Stimuli: Current State of Know... A Tipping Point in Listening Effort: Effects of Linguistic Complexity ... Bailey, I. L., & Lovie, J. E. (1980). Although no significant differences in PPD between the TBI and NH group were observed, the mean values of the PPDs measured for the TBI group were systematically smaller than those of the NH group for all conditions (see Figures 3). This was shown by Ohlenforst et al. score and pupil reaction to light and between the interac-tions of these factors and outcome 6 months after injury. Pupils that do not respond to light or other stimuli are called fixed pupils. The error bars show the standard errors for each condition. Ipsilateral pupil dilation. Analyzing Facial and Eye Movements to Screen for Alzheimer's Disease. Pupil Responses of Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury During Processing of Speech in Noise - Thomas Koelewijn, José A. P. van Haastrecht, Sophia E. Kramer, 2018 Skip to main content Intended for healthcare professionals Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a blow, bump or jolt to the head, the head suddenly and violently hitting an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. Brain injury: A head injury can sometimes cause your pupils to become bigger than normal or two different sizes. Brain injury: A head injury can sometimes cause your pupils to become bigger than normal or two different sizes. In all, these results may indicate disrupted attentional processing required during speech processing for the TBI group compared with that of both NH and HI groups without any reported neurological problems (Koelewijn et al., 2014; Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, Rönnberg, et al., 2012). Participants with TBI in this study had normal PTAs and TRTs but showed difficulties with speech processing in noise, as reflected by worse SRTs compared with the NH group. The PPD did not differ significantly between groups suggesting no difference in actual processing load while listening to speech in noise, which does not confirm H2b. “Having an objective measure that a coach or parent or anyone on the sidelines of a game could use to screen for concussion would truly be a game-changer,” says Shwetak Patel, a professor of computer science & engineering and of electrical engineering at the University of Washington. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Each block contained 39 trials and the order of the blocks was counterbalanced (Latin square) over participants. For example, in patients with a GCS score of 3, physicians predicted a mortality rate of 51 percent and an unfavorable outcome of 70 percent. Brain Injury or Disease Pressure that builds inside your brain after a head injury, stroke , or tumor can damage the muscles in your iris that normally make your pupils open and close. Self-rated effort was higher and self-rated performance was lower at 50% compared with 84% intelligibility. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. 2017; Majdan 2015). Neurocrit Care. They can complicate head injury or any other causes of a brain mass or swelling. ]}. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Nerve responses. During the SRT tasks, participants were asked to fixate their gaze at a dot (diameter 0.47°) located at eye level on a white wall at 3.5 -m distance. 4. After each block, participants were asked to rate their effort, performance, and quitting (task persistence; Koelewijn, Zekveld, Festen, & Kramer, 2012; Zekveld et al., 2010). Traumanurses caring for these patients routinely perform serial neurologic assessments, including pupillary examinations. Stephens JA, Williamson KN, Berryhill ME. This may occur in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, or … Figure 1. Round, oval, irregular, or dilated pupils are compatible with brain death, however, provided that they are not reactive. The pupil dilation response to speech-in-noise processing is considered to be an objective measure of listening effort (Pichora-Fuller et al., 2016). By continuing to browse The pupil dilation response was recorded while participants performed the SRT tasks. Mydriasis refers to dilated pupils that do not change in response to changes in light levels.  |  For the SRT tasks, audio in the form of stereo wave files (44.1 Hz, 16 bit) was presented binaurally by an external soundcard (Creative SoundBlaster, 24 bit) through headphones (Sennheisser, HD 280, 64 Ω). Recent research suggests that one of the ganglion cell types involved in this pupil response also plays a role in the photophobia experienced by migraine sufferers.

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